Prof. Dr. Karl Ossoinig (Iowa City, USA)

          Prof. Dr. Gerhard  Hasenfratz  (Regensburg, Germany)

          Prof. Dr. Christian Mardin  (Erlangen, Germany)

                                                                                                                                            Prof.  Dr. Wolfgang  Hauff (Vienna, Austria)


                                                                                                                                            Dr. Elisabeth Frieling (Munich, Germany)


                                              Course -Administration                             Ms. Rita  Hauser  (Munich, Germany)

                                Audio-Video-Techniques                       Mr. Harald  Kröhn  (Munich, Germany)





                                   Physics, Instrumentation, Standardization, State of the Art in Software, Automation

              Examination Techniques:

       A-scan (8 MHz) < posterior & anterior eye segments, orbit & periorbital region >

      B-scan (10 MHz, 20 MHz) < posterior eye segment, anterior orbit >   
 (25 -50 MHz) < anterior eye segment >

              BIOMETRY for Intra-ocular Lens Calculations
 high-precision axial eye length measurements comparable to the precision of the IOL Master

                                for measurements of normal and abnormal ocular structures 



                       Vitreous Conditions:
                                       vitreous detachments (posterior, anterior), vitreo-schisis, adhesions, (sub) vitreal hemorrhages,
                                 posterior hyphemas, fibro-vascular membranes, asteroid hyalosis, foreign body tracts, inflammatory
                                 infiltrations, abscesses, luxated lens

                    Retinal Diseases:
                                          retinal detachments (rhegmatogenous, exudative, hemorrhagic, tractional), breaks, opercula,
                                 disinsertions, folds,  cysts, retinoschisis, disciform lesions (dry, exudative, hemorrhagic),
                                          macula degeneration, edema, macular holes, Berlin's edema, tumors,
automated - A1:differentiation of
                                  retinal detachments from dense fibro-vascular membranes

                     Choroidal Diseases:
                                          detachments (exudative, hemorrhagic, kissing), folds, thickening (hyperemia, infiltration,
                                  calcifications, tumors

                      Trauma and Foreign Bodies

                       Inflammation / Endophthalmitis (early diagnosis)

                       Malignant Melanomas and Pseudo-melanomas:
                                    (elevated choroidal nevi, melanocytomas, metastatic carcinomas, choroidal hemangiomas,
                                     lymphomas, osteomas, etc.)

                        Retinoblastomas and Pseudo-gliomas (Leukokoria):
                                     PHPV, Coats' disease, endophthalmitis, ROP, toxocariasis, tuberous sclerosis, retinal dysplasia

                        Diseases of Ocular Wall :
                                              staphylomas, colobomas, scleritis (anterior, posterior), panophthalmitis, phthisis


Corneal conditions
                         Masurements of anterior chamber(angle), iris thickness,
                         Hyphaemas, foreign bodies
Synechiae, subluxated lenses,
                         Iris  & ciliary body tumors           
laucomatous changes, and  other conditions affecting the anterior eye segment
                         UBM vs Vorderabschnitts-OCT 


                                   orbital cellulitis, sinusitis, orbital abscesses  

                        Trauma and Foreign Bodies:
emphysema, sub-periosteal hematomas

          lymphomas, pseudolymphomas, metastatic carcinomas, adenoid-cystic carcinomas, cavernous
                                    hemangiomas (adult), infantile hemangiomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, benign mixed tumors of the
                                    lacrimal glands, cysts (dermoid cysts, serous cysts), muco-(pyo-)celes,sarcomas of orbital
                                    bones, meningiomas, carcinoid metastases,congenital dacryoceles, hematomas, etc. 

                         Diseases of Extraocular Muscles, e.g.:
                                     Graves' Orbitopathy (diagnosis, measurement of muscle index, detection of optic nerve
                                                                                                                                        compression, management)
myositis, tumors, pareses

                         Diseases of the Optic Nerve, e.g.:
                                      Optic Neuritis, Optic Atrophy, Tumors (gliomas, meningiomas, lymphomas, carcinosis, leucemic
                                      infiltrates), papilledema vs. papillitis, optic disc drusen, colobomas, optic nerve compression,
                                      Increased intra-cranial pressure (IIH, Tumors)

                          Diseases of Periorbital Sinuses:
                                       sinusitis, tumors (carcinomas, sarcomas, muco(pyo)celes)

                          Clinical Value of Standardized Orbital Echography

                                 Standardized Echography versus CT / MRI




                 1. Cine-Scan S (Quantel Medical, France),  fully standardized, digital A & B scan
                        instrument with analog screen display
and digital processing, complete with
                        cine-loops, sensitivity (gain) adjustments of frozen images, and software 
                        allowing for various automated settings (e.g., measurements, quantitative results,
angle kappa) and automated diagnoses (e.g., retinal detachments, membranes).

      Standardized A-scans for (differential) diagnosis and biometry of anterior and posterior
                                                                                                      eye segments and entire orbit 
                Standardized B-scans for topographic guidance and some measurements;
                      low- frequency (10 MHz)
& high-frequency (20 MHz) for diagnosis of anterior and
                      posterior eye segments and anterior orbit

   2. Aviso S (Quantel Medical, France), the newest and most advanced
                     Standardized A-scan and B-scan Instrument

           Portable, lap-top based, fullly digitized, newest software
                      A-scan frequency standardized 8 MHz,  B-scan frequencies 10, 20, 25, and 50 MHZ (UBM)

                            Link Aviso S & Cinescan S

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